Prepare your ballsThey are about to trip
According to the new study, the dark cores of sunspots are caused by the convection flow of gasses. Using data from the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope, researchers gathered enough data to speculate that hot gas rises from the interior of the sun, spreads outwards, cools, and then sinks inward again. If you watch this incredibly trippy eye-of-Sauron-ish video, a time lapse of 53 minutes of sun spot footage, you can see the effect in action. The dark, thin filaments of the core are known as penumbra, and are made up of the lighter columns of gas caused by the convective flow.