I agree with Mad and Co. It's all about covering your butt. While your intentions were O.K., you need to take this stuff seriously. The bottom line is that, because of your fault, you were at least 2 days late doing the final. You also had a week to do it in the first place. If you were on the campus earlier in the day, you should have done more. Search him out. Hang something on the wall/door. Anything, just to let him know that you really cared. Maybe he isn't an e-mail guy. Basically, you had a week to do the final and forgot about it and then lost it. I really don't see how blaming the teacher does anything here. This isn't about being babied in high school. College is about being an adult and being independent. It's also about learning about the real world. If your boss wants something by a specific date, do you think that a few e-mails will buy you a few more days?? Not usually. He gave you an extra day and you didn't come through. Also, comparing what he did during the semester to what he did at the end isn't fair. There are stringent deadlines for teachers at the end of the semester that aren't there earlier. Don't forget that.
I hope that you respect my honesty here. Just trying to offer an objective opinion. Good luck.