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Ethanol

Postby Yoda » Mon May 08, 2006 1:24 pm

I've been reading up on ethanol as alternative fuel. With gas prices continue to soar, how long before oil is phased out completely?

Can anyone explain the advantages/disadvantages of ethanol? Seems too good to be true and I want to find out as much as I can before investing.
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Re: Ethanol

Postby Art Vandelay » Mon May 08, 2006 1:26 pm

Yoda wrote:I've been reading up on ethanol as alternative fuel. With gas prices continue to soar, how long before oil is phased out completely?


It wont be phased out until the big oil companies find it profitable, or until the ethanol lobby grows stronger than the oil lobby (don't hold your breath)...or when we just flat run out of affordable oil.
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Re: Ethanol

Postby knapplc » Mon May 08, 2006 1:27 pm

Yoda wrote:I've been reading up on ethanol as alternative fuel. With gas prices continue to soar, how long before oil is phased out completely?

Can anyone explain the advantages/disadvantages of ethanol? Seems too good to be true and I want to find out as much as I can before investing.


I know off the top of my head that one of the disadvantages of ethanol is that it takes a lot of coal to corn into ethanol, so it still uses a lot of fossil fuels.
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Postby RugbyD » Mon May 08, 2006 1:40 pm

issue number one is that ethanol is not an economically viable source of energy. It's commercial existence is solely a political manifestation. It is generally accepted, outside of one studtthat has some serious flaws, that ethanol is a net positive energy product. The other side of this is that it's very inefficient relative to gasoline, about 1.4 gallons of ethanol will get you as far as 1 gallon of gas.

There isn't much in the way of public investment opportunity for ethanol at this point. ADM is the closest thing and ethanol is just one part of their massive structure.

The next 20-30 years of ethanol are dependent on political forces, not economic forces. When i get a little more time I'll cull some relevant data from a JPM report i read last week. The important thing to note is that oil is not going anywhere.

Bottom line is that in its current form ethanol is nothing but a time occupier for environmentalists and a total boondoggle for agribusiness of all sizes.
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Postby Yoda » Mon May 08, 2006 1:54 pm

RugbyD wrote:issue number one is that ethanol is not an economically viable source of energy. It's commercial existence is solely a political manifestation. It is generally accepted, outside of one studtthat has some serious flaws, that ethanol is a net positive energy product. The other side of this is that it's very inefficient relative to gasoline, about 1.4 gallons of ethanol will get you as far as 1 gallon of gas.

There isn't much in the way of public investment opportunity for ethanol at this point. ADM is the closest thing and ethanol is just one part of their massive structure.

The next 20-30 years of ethanol are dependent on political forces, not economic forces. When i get a little more time I'll cull some relevant data from a JPM report i read last week. The important thing to note is that oil is not going anywhere.

Bottom line is that in its current form ethanol is nothing but a time occupier for environmentalists and a total boondoggle for agribusiness of all sizes.


Isn't it widely used in foreign countries though? Granted we require a lot more fuel than any other countries, oil is a finite resource. Places like Brazil have an option to buy gas or ethanol at the gas station.

I do agree, it will come down to what the gov't decides to do. But I think oil companies also have a lot to say in what is distributed at their gas stations.

Realistically, do you see ethanol as a viable fuel of the future? Are we able to build an infrastructure to make it work? Obviously not overnight but eventually?
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Postby RugbyD » Mon May 08, 2006 2:18 pm

Yoda wrote:
RugbyD wrote:issue number one is that ethanol is not an economically viable source of energy. It's commercial existence is solely a political manifestation. It is generally accepted, outside of one studtthat has some serious flaws, that ethanol is a net positive energy product. The other side of this is that it's very inefficient relative to gasoline, about 1.4 gallons of ethanol will get you as far as 1 gallon of gas.

There isn't much in the way of public investment opportunity for ethanol at this point. ADM is the closest thing and ethanol is just one part of their massive structure.

The next 20-30 years of ethanol are dependent on political forces, not economic forces. When i get a little more time I'll cull some relevant data from a JPM report i read last week. The important thing to note is that oil is not going anywhere.

Bottom line is that in its current form ethanol is nothing but a time occupier for environmentalists and a total boondoggle for agribusiness of all sizes.


Isn't it widely used in foreign countries though? Granted we require a lot more fuel than any other countries, oil is a finite resource. Places like Brazil have an option to buy gas or ethanol at the gas station.

I do agree, it will come down to what the gov't decides to do. But I think oil companies also have a lot to say in what is distributed at their gas stations.

Realistically, do you see ethanol as a viable fuel of the future? Are we able to build an infrastructure to make it work? Obviously not overnight but eventually?

it is widely used in Brazil, but that was a creation of political force. It was also a 30-year infrastructure-building process.

In the broad sense, i don't see ethanol being viable as a major source of energy. It will certainly have its applications, but there are many other competing sources of alternative fuel that are less developed and could produce higher yields and it looks like ethanol doesn't have much more room in the way of technological advancement. we are able to build the infrastructure, but not at the pace of demand for the next 6-8 months b/c the MTBE switchover was fouled up so bad. unless the fuel rules are relaxed to compensate, it will be an expensive summer.
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Postby JTWood » Tue May 09, 2006 2:24 am

I'm not nieve enough to believe a one-sided report given by multibillionaire financier of the ethanol industry, but some of this does raise some interesting questions. For instance, why is Brazil all about this while we've only persued this with mediocre efforts? Is it strictly due to the oil lobby, or are there more practical reasons? Also, if oil is a commodity in the strictest sense, what is an oil executive doing threatening to lower prices? By definition, no one has control over a commodity.

Anyways, interesting read, even if I don't like Stoned Phillips.

MSNBC.com wrote:A simple solution to pain at the pump?
Greener and cheaper, ethanol could fuel rural America — and won't feed Mideast terrorism
By Stone Phillips
Anchor
Dateline NBC
Updated: 7:40 p.m. ET May 7, 2006

This report aired Dateline Sunday, May 7

Pain at the pump is the price of this country’s addiction to oil. Americans are feeling it intensely—outraged over oil company profits, fearful that another hurricane in the gulf, or a terror attack in the Middle East is all it would take to send prices even higher.

But what if there was one solution to all of this? Something that could solve America’s energy crisis, strengthen our national security, and help save the planet at the same time?
Vinod Khosla: I looked, did my research and found this was brain dead simple to do.Stone Phillips, Dateline anchor: Is it going to mean spending less at the pump?Khosla: Absolutely. The consumer would be paying a dollar a gallon or less.

At age 51, Vinod Khosla is one of the world’s most successful venture capitalists and a self-made multibillionaire.

He came to the U.S. from India in 1976, and over the next 25 years, is said to have created six new jobs for every day he’d been in the country. Though not a household name, Khosla was a co-founder of Sun Microsystems and renowned in business circles for his meticulous research and ability to spot the kind of innovative technology that can revolutionize an industry.

Three years ago, he turned his attention to alternative fuels.
Khosla: What could be better than a greener fuel that’s cheaper for consumers, that doesn’t feed Mideast terrorism, yet instead fuels rural America?

He’s talking about a new generation of ethanol— the fuel made from plants. It’s one fuel he says is just around the corner and will deliver 4 to 10 times the energy of today’s corn ethanol. Khosla knows, because he’s talked to top scientists, visited labs and he’s a bio-medical engineer himself. He believes this new ethanol can replace gasoline and eliminate America’s dependence on foreign oil.

Phillips: How long before you believe this country could be energy independent if it switched to homegrown bushels instead of imported barrels?Khosla: I think you’ll be surprised by my answer. In less than five years, we can irreversibly start a path that can get us independent of petroleum.Phillips: What convinced you this was a must for America?Khosla: I heard about Brazil. I heard they were already doing it. Brazil’s proven it already. How dumb can we be?

Sao Paulo, Brazil is a sprawling city of 18 million people. Late last month, we flew there with Khosla to see what a country transformed by ethanol looks like.
Phillips: This has you pretty charged up, doesn’t it?Khosla: It is very exciting.

Here, ethanol is just part of life. It’s sold at every gas station, including some with very familiar names. Consumers can’t get enough.

Brazil’s been committed to ethanol for 30 years, but if you want to know how it became such a hot commodity lately, start by looking for this label: “flex”. It means cars can run on gas or ethanol. The key to ethanol’s popularity here in Brazil is choice. If you drive a flex-fuel car, you get to choose every time you pull up to the pump.

The choices are gasoline, ethanol—or alcohol as they call it there, or a mixture of the two. You check the prices and make your choice.

Most drivers here choose ethanol, because it’s so much cheaper that even though they get fewer miles to the gallon, it still saves them money.

The flex-fuel cars that triggered the ethanol boom were introduced here three years ago. Already, three of every four new cars sold have the technology.

And who’s helping to feed Brazil’s flex-fuel fever? American car makers like GM and Ford.
Barry Engle, president of Ford Brazil: 70 percent of a particular model is sold with the flex engine. And 90 days from now it will be 100 percent.

Barry Engle is the president of Ford Brazil.
Engle: This isn’t science fiction, this is real world technology that we’re using in Brazil everyday on a broad scale basis.

At a time when ford and other U.S. automakers are posting huge losses, sales in Brazil are up.
Phillips: Are you telling your fellow executives up in Detroit, "Get more flex-fuel, this is the future?" Has that been the message that you feel like you’ve been bringing?Engle: Yes. There is already, in Detroit, a lot of interest in this particular technology.

In fact, both Ford and GM already sell flex cars in the U.S. And how much more does this new technology add to the sticker price? Not a dime.
Phillips: This is not an expensive proposition for automobile makers.Engle: No. It doesn’t have to be. Phillips: And there’s no reason it can’t be translated elsewhere?Engle: As long as the fuel is available.

In Brazil, that fuel is plentiful thanks to a crop as sweet as candy— sugar cane.

Brazil is turning sugar cane into the equivalent of 300,000 barrels of oil a day. To people in this country, what you’re looking at is a field of dreams: Homegrown security that has helped this country to completely free itself from foreign oil.

Last month, Brazil announced it no longer has to import oil from the Middle East or anywhere else. And much of the credit goes to ethanol.

The world's largest sugar cane mill is located in Barra Bonita, Brazil, producing more than 100 million gallons of ethanol a year.

After the cane is harvested, by hand or machine, the stalks are fed into the mill. They’re crushed. The juice separated and sent to tanks to ferment. Ethanol operations are really just industrial-sized moonshine stills. Khosla sampled the product straight from tank.

But what really intoxicates him isn’t what he tasted, but the opportunity he sees in what’s being thrown away. With new technology, Khosla says you can process these mountains of leftovers and triple the amount of ethanol you get, dramatically reducing costs.
Khosla: My bet is it’d be a lot cheaper than $1 a gallon. It might even be less than 70 cents a gallon right there. Right today.

And that’s exactly Khosla’s vision for America— putting new generation ethanol plants next to paper mills, turning their leftovers into fuel. Or even next to orange juice factories, where he says ethanol from peels could replace petroleum.

But that’s only part of it. To really make America an ethanol nation, Khosla says billions of gallons will come from something as common as prairie grass. He says it’ll be much cheaper and deliver 10 times the energy it takes to make it.

Khosla: We could return the country back to the prairie grass that it used to have hundreds of years ago and make, and meet all our petroleum needs. Phillips: Back to the future?Khosla: Back to the future. There is nothing standing in the way.

He’s so sure about it he’s become an ethanol evangelist— preaching to governors, senators and even key advisors to the president who despite his roots in Texas oil is sounding like one of the converted.

In his April 25th speech, President Bush said, “Ethanol will replace gasoline consumption. Ethanol is good for the whole country.”
Khosla: The environmentalists love it because it’s greener. The neo-conservatives like it because it ensures energy independence and security for America. The farmers love it because it takes oil dollars and moves it to rural America.Phillips: It sounds almost too good to be true.Khosla: I’m not this “imagine some kind of hypothetical future” kind of person. But it is a very pragmatic vision.

He may be man of vision but Khosla’s under no illusions about the resistance ethanol faces back home from big oil.

Some oil companies have complained that putting ethanol at their stations would require costly and complicated changes to their trucks, tanks and pumps.
Phillips: How much of a burden will that put on oil companies to start distributing ethanol? To dedicate a pump to ethanol? I mean what about trucks? What about their holding tanks?Khosla: In most cases, the same holding tanks can be used. The same trucks can be used to transport the ethanol. There are logistics problems to be solved, to be sure, but it’s not a difficult transition. I’ve looked at all the issues they raise. In fact, most of them are bogus.

As for the expense, Khosla estimates it would cost about $15 to 20 million to offer ethanol pumps at a thousand gas stations in California.
Khosla: $15 to 20 million dollars. Exxon alone made 36 billion dollars last year.

But Khosla, who’s invested millions of his own money in companies working on ethanol technology, says government must play a role as well, by requiring that gas stations everywhere offer ethanol, that all new cars be flex-fuel, and that oil companies play fair.
Khosla: We need to make sure that the major oil companies don’t manipulate the price of oil enough to drive ethanol out of business.Phillips: Do you believe oil companies would deliberately drop the price of oil?Khosla: Absolutely. A senior executive of a major oil company came up to me and said, “Be careful.” In a very warning tone he said, “Be careful, we can drop the price of gasoline.”

The battle to bring ethanol to your neighborhood pump is just beginning, but Vinod Khosla is confident that time and technology are on his side.
Phillips: What do you say to skeptics, who say, you’re a money maker, you’re an investor and what you’re trying to do here is to drum up support and governmental help to make sure your investment pays off?Khosla: Well, I am in the business of investing. But in fact, this has become a mission for me: to get the message out of how simple it is to get independent of petroleum. In fact, my mission now is to put the fossil in fossil fuels.

President Bush is expected to meet later this month with the heads of the Big Three American automakers and ethanol will top the agenda. Wal-Mart has also confirmed to Dateline that it's working out details to sell a fuel that's 85 percent ethanol at its retail locations that sell gas.

© 2006 MSNBC Interactive

© 2006 MSNBC.com
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Postby RugbyD » Tue May 09, 2006 8:29 am

this is what blew up that article for me:

But Khosla, who’s invested millions of his own money in companies working on ethanol technology, says government must play a role as well, by requiring that gas stations everywhere offer ethanol, that all new cars be flex-fuel, and that oil companies play fair.
Khosla: We need to make sure that the major oil companies don’t manipulate the price of oil enough to drive ethanol out of business.Phillips: Do you believe oil companies would deliberately drop the price of oil?Khosla: Absolutely. A senior executive of a major oil company came up to me and said, “Be careful.” In a very warning tone he said, “Be careful, we can drop the price of gasoline.”


taxes, production, and transportation costs alone for gas far exceed the ppg of ethanol this guy is fantasizing about. Oil companies would have to incurr serious losses over an extended period of time to push ethanol out and they would not be able to make it back by raising prices excessively on the way back. lets not even get into that fact that oil companies can't dictate the price of oil in the world market.

Another reason this guy seems full of snake oil is that he basically admits that "sure my idea is great. i just need the government to force people to do things in order to make it work because as it stands right now it can't carry its own weight". As far as his concern for being driven out of business, maybe he should take a second look at his model that currently survives only because of massive corporate welfare.

Something else to consider is that the idea of energy independence is a bad one. There is no such thing as energy independence, only a shift of dependency. A drought in the wrong part of the country could cause massive price shocks in ethanol-based fuel. The concept of diversification applies just as well to this situation as it does to any investment. Oil is investable capital to our economy. Becoming independent from foreign oil just shifts this risk to a more concentrated area, whether we're growing tons more corn or drilling the hell out of ANWR and the outer shelf.

A properly diversified energy portfolio will require diversification of source within our borders and outside our borders. Since the current stream of 'alternative' fuels are largely not economically viable, it only makes sense to establish relationships with as many international oil suppliers as possible while substitute sources of energy become more advanced, efficient, and price-competitive. While this would not insulate us from the short-run change in world oil prices should Iran or whoever act irrationally, it is over the long-run in which diversification shows its full net benefits.

haven't has time to parse from the JPM report. will get to it soon.
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Postby RugbyD » Tue May 09, 2006 9:14 am

some JPM snippets:

In
1975 Brazil established the Programa Nacional do Alcool to promote production of
ethanol from sugar cane. Initially, the government required gasoline to contain 20%
ethanol, but in 1979 it ordered auto manufacturers to build cars running on pure
ethanol. The government offered extremely generous subsidies for ethanol
production and for the purchase of ethanol-powered cars. By 1984, ethanol
consumption exceeded gasoline consumption and Brazil was making more ethanol
than it could use.
In both the United States and Brazil, ethanol lost much of its attractiveness as
the price of oil collapsed from around $30 per barrel in 1985 to $12 by the spring of
1986. Brazilian demand was simultaneously depressed by the quadrupling of world
sugar prices between 1985 and 1988. Brazilian car buyers shunned alcohol-powered
vehicles, and a large share of Brazil’s ethanol production capacity was closed

Production of ethanol from sugar cane may also be granted federal support for
political reasons. Should this occur, sugar growers can be expected to erect ethanol
distilleries in Florida and Louisiana. Cane-based ethanol is likely to be extremely
expensive in the United States, as stringent import restrictions keep the domestic
price of sugar far above world levels. Absent a requirement that gasoline refiners
and blenders use a specified amount of cane-based ethanol each year, the product is
unlikely to find a market.

The 2005 debate over the Energy Policy Act revealed a powerful congressional
coalition working on ethanol’s behalf. The law contains mandates and incentives
to achieve widespread use of ethanol in motor fuel:
• Although oil refiners are no longer required to sell reformulated gasoline
with oxygenates, they must meet a new renewable fuel standard by using 4
billion gallons of renewable fuels in 2006, rising to 7.5 billion gallons by
2012.
• Cellulosic ethanol—ethanol made from wood or from wheat, sorghum, and
other grasses, rather than from corn kernels—received even larger
incentives, drawing political support from Great Plains states and the
Northwest, where lack of rain limits corn cultivation. Some 250 million
gallons of fuel ethanol must come from cellulosic sources by 2013. Foreach gallon of cellulosic ethanol used, the refiner receives credit for 2.5
gallons toward its obligations under the renewable fuels standard. The law
also authorizes $250 million of cash payments to producers of cellulosic
ethanol and gives them a $.025/gal tax credit.
• The tax credit for “small” ethanol producers was made available to
producers with capacity of 60 million gallons per year, twice the previous
limit.
• The government was authorized to spend up to $200 million a year for
research into alternative fuels, four times the previous level.
• Gas stations and fleet fueling stations were offered a 30% tax credit for the
cost of installing pumps and tanks for E85 ethanol.

At present, the government assesses a 2.5% tax on imported ethanol
plus a secondary tariff of $0.54/gal. Reducing the tariffs would lead to higher
imports of cane-based ethanol from Brazil, Central America, and the Caribbean,
creating increased competition for US producers.

Many vehicles in Brazil now use E24, but the
Brazilian government has aggressively pushed manufacturers to produce vehicles
capable of using such fuel. But even if the US government were to mandate similar
developments, it would be many years before a large proportion of US light-vehicle
fleet would be capable of using fuel with high ethanol content without increased air
pollution and engine damage.

While E85 is currently receiving
significant attention, we believe E85 will account for only a small fraction of ethanol
demand growth, based on three factors: the low penetration of flex-fuel vehicles, the
limited availability of E85 at the pump, and the likely retail price of E85 relative to
gasoline.

At the current pace, significant penetration of flex-fuel vehicles will take
decades. The following conceptual exercise may be helpful in trying to understand
why this is so. If we were to assume that vehicles in the US are used for 14 years
before they are scrapped (the median age of light vehicles in the US fleet is about 14
years) and if we further assume that all new light vehicles sold in the United States
were suddenly required to have flexible-fuel engine technology, then it would take about 14 years for the US fleet to be replaced by flex-fuel vehicles. Based on
conversations with auto manufacturers and Energy Information Administration
forecasts (Figure 6), we believe that flex-fuel vehicles will account for only 5-7% of
light vehicle sales between now and 2030. In this event, they would account for less
than 7% of the US fleet in 2030.

The production cost of a flex-fuel vehicle is roughly
the same as that of a traditional vehicle, and manufacturers have an incentive to
produce flexible-fuel vehicles because they receive credits that allow them to sell an
increased number of less fuel efficient vehicles without running afoul of government
fuel-economy standards.

At the end of
2005, only 608 of the country’s 170,000 gas stations offered E85 as an alternative to
ordinary gasoline. Most of these stations are in the Upper Midwest, the main area for
ethanol production (Figure 7). The National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition expects 2,000
stations to sell E85 by the end of 2006, which would represent barely 1% of all
refueling stations. This is in spite of a 30% federal tax credit provided in the Energy
Policy Act of 2005 for equipment and infrastructure to dispense E85 at retail outlets.
The tax credit became effective in 2006 and is scheduled to expire December 31,
2008.

A survey by the American Lung Association indicates that most stations
are charging a premium for E85, once the pump price is adjusted for the difference in
fuel efficiency (DOE figures suggest that, on average, a vehicle would have to burn
1.25 gallons of E85 to travel the same distance it could go on one gallon of gasoline).
Given the lower fuel economy, the retail price of E85 would have to be at least
$0.60/gal less than the retail price of conventional gasoline in order for the fuel
operating costs of E85 to be comparable with those of gasoline. The average
premium has been relatively constant since the survey was initiated over a year ago,
well before the increase in ethanol demand resulting from the MTBE switchover.

Ethanol is projected to account for a modest 6% of total gasoline consumption
in 2030, with E85 accounting for less than 1% of the 6%, under the EIA’s high
commodity price scenario (Figure 8). Under the EIA’s high-price scenario, which
assumes the most aggressive growth in ethanol consumption, the EIA estimates that
ethanol consumption will increase at a 6.4% average annual rate through 2030,
compared with a 1.2% average annual growth rate of gasoline consumption. This
forecast has ethanol accounting for 3.5-6.1% of gasoline consumption in 2030
(Figure 9), based on various assumptions about the price of oil.


In the absence of significant additional government intervention, we are
doubtful that ethanol will ever displace more than 9% of U.S. gasoline
consumption. Ethanol used as a gasoline additive is limited to about 10% of a
gallon of gasoline, which is the maximum amount of ethanol that non-flexible-fuelvehicle
engines are designed to handle. The practical limit in California is actually
lower than 10% due to the state's “Predictive Formula” for evaporative emissions,
which makes it difficult for blenders to use more than 5.7% ethanol in gasoline
because higher ethanol concentrations increase emissions of nitrous oxides. Thus,
U.S. demand for ethanol used as a blending component in gasoline likely will be
saturated when blended ethanol equals roughly 9% of the U.S. gasoline pool.
The Energy Department forecasts that ethanol used as a fuel additive will reach
saturation within 20 years in a scenario with high gasoline prices. Beyond the
saturation point, demand growth for fuel ethanol will be driven by demand growth
for gasoline and by increased use, if any, of E85 as a gasoline substitute. If gasoline
prices are more moderate, according to the government forecast, ethanol used as a
fuel additive will not reach saturation prior to 2030.

The technology for production of cellulosic ethanol lags well behind the
technology for making ethanol from corn kernels (starch). Cellulosic ethanol is
made from the non-food portion of renewable feedstocks such as: cornstalks (as
opposed to corn kernels), wheat, sorghum, switchgrass, sugarcane, trees, and a
variety of other crops.
Capital costs to make cellulosic ethanol are significantly higher than those of
starch-based ethanol (Figure 16). Canada’s Iogen Corporation, which is trying to
commercialize cellulosic ethanol production, estimates that a plant with ethanol
capacity of 50 million gallons per year and a lignin-fired combined-heat-and-power
plant (CHP) will cost about $300 million to build, or about $92,000 per barrel per
day (bpd) of capacity. By comparison, a corn ethanol plant of equal capacity could be built for about $65 million, or about $20,000 per bpd of capacity and a traditional
petroleum refinery can be build for less than $20,000 per bpd of capacity.

The Energy Department's Annual Energy Outlook assumes that commercial
ethanol production from cellulose feedstocks begins in 2010, but that it will exceed
the mandated level only in the event of high gasoline prices. If gasoline prices are
moderate, production of cellulosic ethanol is projected to be minimal (Figure 17).

We do not expect the major oil refiners to move into ethanol production.
Making ethanol requires a very different production process from making gasoline,
and occurs on a very different scale. Oil refiners appear to us to have no competitive
advantage in the sector. To the extent that refiners are concerned about securing
ethanol supplies for their refineries, they can do so contractually without owning
ethanol plants


Weather. Crop production in any given location remains highly vulnerable
to weather conditions. A single-plant ethanol producer in the midst of a
drought-struck region may have a difficult time obtaining the raw materials
needed to maintain production without prohibitive transportation costs. A
multi-plant operator is able to reduce this risk through geographic
diversification.
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Postby Madison » Wed May 10, 2006 10:08 am

Great read guys. ;-D

it would be many years before a large proportion of US light-vehicle
fleet would be capable of using fuel with high ethanol content without increased air
pollution and engine damage.



I'd like to read more information about emissions and lifespan of engines using Ethanol, if anyone's got good articles about those two topics. :-)
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